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Safety Western Australia 2002 - Perth, Australia < Back to Publications Index

Date: 9th - 10th Oct 2002
Session Title: Evaluating the effectiveness of strategies for preventing work injuries
Presented By: Joe Maglizza, Safety, Health & Environment Manager - CSR Construction Materials (WA/NT)

For the last 5-7 years CSR Readymix have been focussing on implementing a comprehensive and evolving Safety, Health and Environment System. Like all systems the focus has been on:

Ensuring plant and hardware meet regulatory and basic safety requirements (eg: guarding, emergency stops etc.)

Implementing procedures and compliance kits on high risk activities such as Fixed Plant Isolation, Mobile Plant, Confined Spaces, Silica Dust Management, etc

Implementing a Training System focussing on Managers/Supervisors responsibilities, Skill based assessments (eg; mobile plant), generic OHS Training (eg; noise)

Having both a strategic planning and site based planning approach to SHE management etc.

The results to date verified by third party Audits on most of our sites has seen a high degree Compliance with this System. In 2000 we became conscious of the fact that while plant and Procedural issues were being addressed a People centred approach focussing on individuals Beliefs, Attitudes and Behaviours were not addressed as directly as opposed to any vicarious route through generic training. In fact we were reluctant to address this issue, as we needed to get our "fundamentals" right first. That is, we had to demonstrate we could manage the basics prior to taking on a more sophisticated approach or enhancement given that safety improvements generally follow (or should) some form of maturation over a period of years. After looking at various interventions such as "Behaviour Based Safety" we decided to utilise a program developed by People and Quality Solutions Pty Ltd (PaQS). This was chosen considering our Business context, structure and the fact that we did not want another Management System at the site level.

Pre-Training Statistical Data - September 2000
These graphs show how safety performance had levelled prior to training

Total Recordable Incident Frequency

Severity Rate

PaQS Methodology
The PaQS Intervention predominantly takes a cognitive approach to change and Safety. The five beliefs and attitudes it addresses are:

a) Safety Control: Ability to take personal control and responsibility.
b) Risk Avoidance: Ability to take constructive (growth) risks while avoiding dangerous risks.
c) Stress Tolerance: Ability to handle and cope with Stress.
d) Driving Attitudes: Care, courteousness and commitment to safe and professional operation of equipment and driving.
e) Quality Awareness: Willingness and ability to take personal responsibility for what they do addressing issues of error avoidance and continuous improvement.

The steps of the program involve the following:

  • Administering of a questionnaire developed by London House that identifies an individuals beliefs and attitudes to the above. The questionnaire has been developed to detect unacceptable distortion and accuracy results.
  • A confidential 20 -30 min debrief with each individual participant on their own profile and assessment by a trained person.
  • An 8 hr training session that explains each of the above Beliefs and Attitudes and concepts relating to a cognitive approach to change: i.e. Thinking - Feeling - Behaviour - Results and the relationship between Cause and Effect. The training is both interactive and reflective. Individuals are required to nominate specific behaviours that they can adopt that will reinforce a belief they want to improve. This is documented in a simple personal action plan.
  • A second administering of the same questionnaire some 2 months later.
  • A second confidential one on one debrief and assessment.
  • A third administering of the questionnaire.
  • A third and final debrief and assessment in relation to knowledge, implementation of their action plan, change in beliefs etc.
The program is reinforced with the issue of either 3 CD's or Tapes over the 9 months that has music and taped conversations of workers discussing their own personal experiences on Safety, Stress, what it means to be a professional etc, as well as the monthly issue of a newsletter dealing with personal Safety, stress and lifestyle issues. Full detail on the PaQS program is available at

It should be stressed the importance we place on the confidentiality of the individuals results, and the voluntary nature of participating.

Aggregated AS&QA ARM Questionnaire Results
Safety Awareness Improvement at Bunbury and Geraldton Sites

Safety Awareness Improvement at Bunbury and Geraldton Sites

Safety Awareness Rating
1 - High (Low Risk)
2 - Above Average
3 - Average
4 - Below Average
5 - Low

Program Evaluation
The measures we are using are:

  • Total recordable frequency rate (i.e. LTI and MTI)
  • Workers Comp Rate
  • Aggregated PaQS Questionnaire results
All of the above have improved, as demonstrated by the results below.

While I am confident the program to date (we are still implementing) has contributed to the good results I am not sure that it has been the only contributor. Accordingly we are utilising a Masters (Organisational Psychology) student to undertake further evaluation to further define its impact.

Post-Training Statistical Data - August 2002
These graphs show a decrease in Injury Incidence, Injury Severity and Workers Compensation Incidents

Notes: MAT = Moving Annual Total; MTH = Month
Course in Advanced Safety and Quality Awareness Implemented September 2000

CSR Readymix Perth

CSR Readymix Country West
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